• While Ethereum’s transition to Proof-of-Stake was a significant milestone, it remains just one of many important upgrades to come. A key focus of Ethereum’s roadmap is to scale computational throughput without compromising on decentralized validation.

  • Layer-2s are seen as the most expedient route to scalability, aligning with the roll-up centric vision. Notably, Layer-2s continue to gain traction, as mainnet data publishing fees reach record heights in 2023, increasing by 257.7% YTD. 

  • Danksharding is how Ethereum becomes a truly scalable, unified settlement and Data Availability layer. In particular, Proto-Danksharding (EIP-4844) serves as a precursor to Danksharding and introduces blob-carrying transactions, a dedicated storage space for Data Availability.

  • Blobs are based on a multi-dimensional EIP-1559 fee market where there are two resources, gas and blobs, with separate floating gas prices and limits. The use of blobs unlocks several material benefits for Layer-2s, offering a more cost-effective solution than the current calldata space rollups utilize. 

  • The path to Danksharding also includes key components such as Data Availability Sampling, KZG Commitments, and Proposer-builder Separation. All paths lead to the endgame of centralized block production with decentralized trustless block validation.

  • Verkle trees are a critical step on the path to statelessness. These data structures enable nodes to validate blocks without having to store the entire state database.

  • High disk space requirements serve as a barrier to universal node access, undermining decentralization. History expiry (EIP-4444) and state expiry are designed to minimize historical data storage burden and eliminate technical debt.

  • Other notable upgrades that refine Ethereum’s architecture include Single Slot Finality, Distributed Validator Technology, Secret Leader Election and recently, Account Abstraction.


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