In this section, we define the Funding Rate, its constituent components, and how it is used.

**I. Purpose of the Funding Rate**

The Funding Rate is used essentially to force convergence of prices between the Perpetual Futures Market and the actual underlying commodity.

**II. Why is the Funding Rate Important?**

In traditional futures contracts, settlements occur on a monthly or quarterly basis - depending on the contract specifications. At settlement, the contract price converges with the spot price, and all open positions expire. Perpetual contracts are widely offered by crypto-derivative exchanges, and it is designed similar to a traditional futures contract. Albeit, perpetual contracts offer a key difference.

Unlike conventional futures, traders can hold positions without an expiry date and do not need to keep track of various delivery months. For instance, a trader can keep a short position to perpetuity unless he gets liquidated. As a result, trading perpetual contracts are very similar to trading pairs on the spot market.

In short, perpetual contracts never settle in the traditional sense. As such, crypto-exchanges created a mechanism to ensure that contract prices correspond to the index. This is known as Funding Rate.

**III. What is the Funding Rate?**

Funding rates are periodic payments either to traders that are long or short based on the difference between perpetual contract markets and spot prices. When the market is bullish, the funding rate is positive and long traders pay short traders. When the market is bearish, the funding rate is negative and short traders pay long traders.

Binance takes no fees for Funding Rate transfers; these are directly between traders.

On Binance Futures, Funding occurs every 8 hours at 00:00 UTC; 08:00 UTC and 16:00 UTC. Traders are only liable for funding payments in either direction if they have open positions at the pre-specified funding times. If traders do not have a position, they are not liable for any funding. If you close your position prior to the funding exchange then you will not pay or receive funding.

Important Note: There is up to 15 seconds of delay in the actual charging time of the funding fee. For example, when User A opens a position at 08:00:05 UTC, User A would be liable for the funding fee (either paying or receiving the funding fee).

On Binance Futures platform, funding rates (highlighted in red) and a countdown to the next funding (highlighted in white) are displayed as such:

**IV. How to Calculate the Funding Amount?**

Funding is calculated as:

Funding Amount=Nominal Value of Positions* ×Funding Rate

*Nominal Value of Positions = Mark Price x Size of a Contract

*Nominal Value of Positions = Mark Price x Size of a Contract

**V. What Determines the Funding Rate?**

There are two components to the Funding Rate: the Interest Rate and the Premium. The Premium particular is why the price of the Perpetual Contract will converge with the price of the underlying instrument.

Binance uses a flat interest rate component, with the assumption that holding cash equivalent returns a higher interest than BTC equivalent. The difference is stipulated to be 0.03% per day by default (0.01% per funding interval since funding occurs every 8 hours) and may change depending on market conditions such as the Federal Funds Rate.

There may exist a significant difference in price between the Perpetual Contract and the Mark Price. In such instances, a Premium Index will be used to enforce price convergence between the two markets. The history of the premium index can be viewed here. It is calculated separately for every instrument, and the formula is below:

Premium Index(P)= [ Max(0, Impact Bid Price - Price Index ) - Max(0, Price Index - Impact Ask Price)] / Price Index

Impact Bid Price=The average fill price to execute the Impact Margin Notional on the Bid Price

Impact Ask Price=The average fill price to execute the Impact Margin Notional on the Ask Price

The Price Index is a bucket of prices from the major Spot Market Exchanges, weighted by their relative volume.

The Impact Margin Notional (IMN) for USDT-Margined Contracts is the notional available to trade with 200 USDT worth of margin (price quote in USDT); for Coin-Margined Contracts is the notional available to trade with 200 USD worth of margin (price quote in USD). This is used to determine how deep in the order book to measure either the Impact Bid or Ask price.

Impact Margin Notional (IMN) = 200 USDT / Initial margin rate at maximum leverage level

Refer here for information about Leverage and Margin of USDT Futures Contracts

For example: the maximum leverage of BTCUSDT perpetual contract is 125x, and its corresponding Initial Margin Rate is 0.8%, then the Impact Margin Notional (IMN) is 25,000 USDT (200 USDT / 0.8%) , and the system will take an IMN of 25,000 USDT every minute in the order book to measure average Impact Bid/Ask price.

**VI. Funding Rate Calculation.**

**Step 1: Impact Bid/Ask Price Series in this funding period**

Given the bid side order book below:

Level | Price | Base_quantity | Quote_notional_quantity | Accumulated_quote_notional_quantity |

1 | p1 | q1 | multiplier*p1*q1 | multiplier*p1*q1 |

2 | p2 | q2 | multiplier*p2*q2 | multiplier**p1*q1+multiplier*p2*q2 |

3 | p3 | q3 | multiplier*p3*q3 | multiplier**p1*q1+multiplier**p2*q2+multiplier*p3*q3 |

... | ... | ... | ... | ... |

n | pn | qn | multiplier*pn*qn | multiplier*∑pn*qn |

If multiplier *∑px*qx > IMN in level x and multiplier * ∑px-1*qx-1 < IMN in level x-1, then we can get the impact bid price from level x order book.

Impact bid price =IMN/( (IMN-multiplier *∑px-1*qx-1)/px+multiplier * ∑qx-1)

*IMN: Impact Margin Notional

To get the Impact Bid/Ask Price Series, the system performs the above methodology over the order book snapshots in this funding period.

Take an example:

The ask order book summarised as below:

Level | Price | Base_quantity | Quote_notional_quantity | Accumulated_quote_notional_quantity |

1 | 11409.63 | 0.499 | (11409.63 x 0.499) | 5693.41 |

2 | 11409.78 | 0.008 | (11409.78 x 0.008) | (11409.63 x 0.499) + (11409.78 x 0.008) |

3 | 11410.08 | 0.616 | (11410.08 x 0.616) | …... |

4 | 11410.49 | 0.079 | (11410.49 x 0.079) | ……... |

5=x-1 | 11410.50 | 0.065 | (11410.50 x 0.065) | 14,456.38 < 25,000 USDT * |

6=x | 11410.54 | 2.850 | (11410.54 x 2.850) | (11409.63 x 0.499) + (11409.78 x 0.008)+ (11410.08 x 0.616)+ (11410.49 x 0.079)+ (11410.50 x 0.065) + (11410.54 x 2.850) = 46,976.38 > 25,000 USDT * |

*BTCUSDT perpetual contract default Impact Margin Notional

From the table above we get following figures：

- Price at Level x-1 is 11410.50
- Accumulated quote notional quantity at Level x is 14456.38
- Accumulated base quantity at Level x-1 is：0.499 + 0.008 + 0.616 +0.079 + 0.065 = 1.267

Substituting into the formula:

Impact ask price =IMN/( (IMN-multiplier *∑px-1*qx-1)/px+multiplier * ∑qx-1)

= 25,000 / [(25,000 - 14456.38 )/ 11410.54 + 1.267]

= 25,000 / (10543.62/11410.54 + 1.267）

= 11,410.31 USDT

Analysis as follows：

- The corresponding quantity when it reaches NIM at Level x：(IMN-multiplier *∑px-1*qx-1)/px = (25,000 - 14456.38 )/ 11410.54 = 0.924
- Accumulated base quantity when it reaches NIM ：0.924 + 1.267 = 2.191
- Impact ask price = 25,000 / 2.191 = 11,410.31 USDT

**Step 2: Premium Index Series in this funding period**

Binance calculates the Premium Index every minute, and takes a Time-weighted average across all indices to the Funding Time (every 8 hours).

Click to view Premium Index History

Premium Index Formula:

Premium Index(P)= [ Max(0, Impact Bid Price - Price Index ) - Max(0, Price Index - Impact Ask Price)] / Price Index

(Max(0,bpn-ipn)-Max(0,ipn-apn))/ipn

Sequence | Impact Bid Price | Impact Ask Price | Index Price | Premium Index |

1 | bp1 | ap1 | ip1 | (Max(0,bp1-ip1)-Max(0,ip1-ap1))/ip1 |

2 | bp2 | ap2 | ip2 | (Max(0,bp2-ip2)-Max(0,ip2-ap2))/ip2 |

... | ... | ... | ... | ... |

n | bpn | apn | ipn | (Max(0,bpn-ipn)-Max(0,ipn-apn))/ipn |

**Step 3: Time-to-funding weighted Average of Premium Index of this funding period**

Use the Premium Index Series in this funding period (from step 2) substitute to Average Premium Index formula:

Average Premium Index (P) = (1*Premium_Index_1+2*Premium_Index_2+3*Premium_Index_3+···+·480*Premium_index_480)/(1+2+3+···+480)

*Premium_Index_1: the premium index at first minute

**Step 4: Funding Rate calculation**

The Funding Rate is then calculated with this 8-Hour Interest Rate Component (0.01%) and the 8-Hour Premium Component. A +/- 0.05% damper is also added. For example, the Funding Rates calculated from 00:00 - 08:00 is exchanged at 08:00.

Click to view Funding Rate History

The Funding Rate formula:

Funding Rate (F) = Premium Index (P) + clamp(0.01% - Premium Index (P), 0.05%, -0.05%)

*Premium Index (P) here is referring to the current average

Note:

The function clamp(x, min, max) means if (x < min), then x = min; if (x > max), then x = max; if max ≥ a ≥ min, then return x.

In other words, as long as the Premium Index is between -0.04% to 0.06%, the Funding Rate will equal 0.01% (the Interest Rate).

If (Interest Rate (I) - Premium Index (P)) is within +/-0.05% then F = P + (I - P) = I. In other words, the Funding Rate will be equal to the Interest Rate.

**Example 1：**

Time stamp：2020-08-27 20:00:00 UTC

Price Index：11,312.66USDT

Impact Bid Price：11,316.83 USDT

Impact Ask Price：11,316.80 USDT

Premium Index(P)=Max(0, Impact Bid Price−Price Index )−Max(0, Price Index −Impact Ask Price)/Price Index

=(Max(0, 11,316.83 - 11,312.66) - Max(0,11,312.66 - 11317.66) / 11,312.66

= (4.17 - 0) / 11,312.66

= 0.0369%

*Please be noted that in this example we are within the funding period UTC 16:00 - 24:00, the actual Premium Index at UTC 20:00 need to be taken from time-weighted average across all indices to within UTC 16:00 - 20:00 funding period.

**Example 2:**

Time stamp：2020-08-28 08:00:00 UTC

Mark Price：11,329.52

This is the end of the funding period UTC 00:00 - 08:00, 8 hours = 480 minutes, so 8-hours weighted average Premium Index(P) = 0.0429%

Average Premium Index = (1*Premium_Index_1+2*Premium_Index_2+3*Premium_Index_3+···+·480*Premium_index_480)/(1+2+3+···+480)

*Premium_Index_1: the premium index at first minute

Funding Rate (F) = Premium Index (P) + clamp(0.01% - Premium Index (P), 0.05%, -0.05%)

= 0.0429% + Clamp(0.01% - 0.0429%，0.05%， -0.05%)

= 0.0429% + (-0.0329%)

= 0.0100%

**Step 5: Capped Funding Rate**

Floor = max(Funding Rate of last period - 0.75 * Maintenance Margin Ratio, -0.75 * (Initial Margin Ratio- Maintenance Margin Ratio))

Cap = min(Funding Rate of last period + 0.75 * Maintenance Margin Ratio, 0.75 * (Initial Margin Ratio- Maintenance Margin Ratio))

Capped Funding Rate = clamp(Funding Rate*, Floor, Cap)

*Funding Rate (from Step 4)

The funding rate of each contract is calculated based on its corresponding "Initial Margin Ratio" and "Maintenance Margin Ratio" at the maximum leverage level. For Initial Margin Ratio and Maintenance Margin Ratio, please refer to the support article Leverage and Margin of USDT Futures Contracts for more detail.

For example: To calculate Floor and Cap of BTCUSDT perpetual contract, the corresponding "Initial Margin Ratio" and "Maintenance Margin Ratio" in the table at the maximum leverage level 125x is 0.8% and 0.4% respectively.

Note that there is an exception for BCHUSDT, we need to refer to the USDT 75x perpetual contract table rather than 20x table of itself, i.e. the corresponding "Initial Margin Ratio" and "Maintenance Margin Ratio" in the table at the maximum leverage level 75x is 1.3% and 0.65% respectively.

**VII. How to Access Both Real-Time and Historical Funding Rate**

Now, you can access both real-time and historical funding rate. Click “Information” and go to “Funding Rate History”. Alternatively, you can directly visit https://www.binance.com/en/futures/funding-history/0.

New version of trading interface:

Old version of trading interface:

Real-Time Funding Rate:

Funding Rate History: