• An emerging trend in blockchain scalability is the evolution of Layer-3 networks, Superchains, and hyperchains. These advancements are being adopted by several Layer-2s and are poised to underpin the next generation of Ethereum scaling, streamlining the development process, bolstering security, and fostering greater interoperability across the ecosystem.

  • Optimism’s OP Stack is pioneering the path towards a highly interoperable network of blockchains known as the Superchain, and the recent Bedrock upgrade represents one of the initial steps towards realizing their vision.

  • Arbitrum is also at the forefront of Ethereum scaling with its development of Layer-3 networks through Arbitrum Orbit, offering a permissionless framework for deploying customized chains on top of Arbitrum L2.

  • zkSync has introduced the concept of hyperchains, a network of customizable and trustless linked blockchains, enabling hyperscalability, improved composability, and enhanced security.

  • StarkWare, the innovative minds behind fractal scaling, is developing a multi-layered solution, exploring L3s for customized scaling and utilizing L2s for general-purpose scaling.

  • Polygon 2.0 aims to create the “Value Layer of the Internet” by unifying its suite of L2 solutions, including Polygon PoS, Supernets, and zkEVM, through a cross-chain coordination protocol.


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